For a better understanding of total ordering, an example is using Avalanche® transactions and seeing how the consensus protocol does not group into blocks, and there isn't a single linear blockchain. Instead, Avalanche employs a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) structure.
In the context of Avalanche and other DAG-based consensus protocols, total ordering refers to establishing a consistent order for transactions within the Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG). Unlike traditional blockchains where transactions are ordered in sequential blocks, in a DAG, transactions are linked together, and determining their order is essential to achieve consensus.
A total ordering on Avalanche involves ensuring that all nodes in the network agree on the order in which transactions were added to the DAG. This order is crucial for reaching consensus on the state of the ledger and preventing double-spending and other conflicts that could arise and cause slower throughput.
The key advantage of Avalanche and similar DAG-based consensus mechanisms is that it can achieve high transaction throughput and low latency while maintaining security and decentralization.
For more information on Avalanche and it's consensus protocol, navigate to the following whitepapers:
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